Corona viruses, a type of virus, are named with the word corona, which means crown in Latin, because they are compared to a round crown with protrusions on it when viewed with an electron microscope.
Coronaviruses have been seen in our society for years. The simplest and the most common is the common cold. A group of 20 different types of viruses that cause upper respiratory tract infection with a runny nose is also coronavirus. Many other coronaviruses from the coronavirus family cause milder illnesses with milder symptoms than the new coronavirus. For this reason, coronaviruses have not caused a major epidemic until now when it comes to diseases such as the common cold. From time to time, coronaviruses can switch between humans and animals. The genetic information of viruses varies due to the mutation of their RNA. It escapes from the previously formed immune system, especially by clinging to the cell in surface proteins, creating changes in the proteins it uses to enter, and can multiply faster and cause much more damage to the cells.
Coronaviruses, which have evolved over time, like all types of viruses, have started to cause more serious health problems with flu-like symptoms since 2002. Coronaviruses are zoonic viruses, which are at risk of transmission between animals and humans. It is thought that Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, known as MERS in the past, passed from camels, and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome known as SARS from civet cats to humans. Standard recommendations for preventing the spread of coronavirus infections include the regular hand washing and cleaning with alcohol-based hand disinfectants or soap and water, covering the mouth and nose with tissue or inside the elbow during coughing and sneezing, and avoiding contact with people who show these symptoms. The used handkerchief should be disposed of immediately..
It was first seen in the Wuhan region of China in early December 2019, and the official name of the virus was determined as SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2) by the World Health Organization (WHO / WHO). The World Health Organization uses the term Covid-19 to describe the disease caused by the virus.
On January 30, 2020, Covid-19 was declared a global health emergency by the World Health Organization. On March 11, 2020, the virus was declared as a pandemic, what means the global epidemic.
The New Coronavirus Disease is generally the disease with fever, dry cough and breathing difficulties in progressive situations. In addition to these, different complaints such as sore throat, headache, nausea-vomiting, diarrhea, runny nose, muscle-joint pain, loss of appetite can be seen. While the disease does not cause any complaints in some young and healthy people, it may progress with a milder clinical picture for some people; pneumonia, acute respiratory failure, and renal failure, and in some cases it can result in death.
The virus is transmitted by droplets emitted by coughing, sneezing, or even speech from individuals who are sick or not sick, and by contact with the eyes, mouth and nose areas of the hands after touching the surfaces where the respiratory secretions of the patients touch. The virus settles in the respiratory system. Studies have shown that people who carry the virus without showing symptoms and in the incubation period are also contagious.
Coronaviruses are generally viruses that cannot survive for a long time in the outside of the body. However, on some surfaces, they can survive from a few hours to a few days.